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By Leonid Zhmud

Dies ist die erste umfassende Untersuchung von Inhalt, shape und Zielen der Peripatetischen Historiographie der Naturwissenschaften. Zhmud konzentriert sich auf den Aristoteles-Schüler Eudemus von Rhodos, dessen Werk die Grundlage der Peripatetischen Historiographie der Naturwissenschaften bildet. Pluspunkte foreign renommierter Autor stark überarbeitete Übersetzung aus dem Russischen (zuerst Moskau 2002) innovativer Ansatz über die Wurzeln der Wissenschaftsgeschichte in Europa

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The origin of the history of science in classical antiquity

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In the classical period that particularly concerns us now, culture was usually understood as the sum total of pãsai técnai, while the word técnh itself could equally refer to mathematics and poetry, medicine and pottery. The term ëpist2mh meant ‘firm knowledge’ and was, hence, the closest to the notion of science in the modern sense. It was far, however, from embracing all kinds of scientific knowledge: according to Plato, it did not include Presocratic fusiología and metewrología. The term ëpist2mh, on the other hand, could denote not only astronomy, but also rhetoric and even ironwork.

The idea of progress in England, New Haven 1990, 29ff. Thus, Wissenschaft in the subjective sense used to mean “persönliche Fähigkeit, Fertigkeit, Geschichtlichkeit”, in the objective sense “jeder Wissenszweig samt der praktisch-nützlichen Anwendung” (Bumann, W. Der Begriff der Wissenschaft im deutschen Sprach- und Denkraum, Der Wissenschaftsbegriff. Historische und systematische Untersuchungen, ed. by A. Diemer, Meisenheim am Glan 1970, 64–75). The future researcher may well find similar contradictions in what seems logically obvious to us.

Edelstein, op. ; Thraede. Fortschritt, 142; Babut, F. L’idée de progrès et la relativité du savoir humain selon Xenophane (Fr. 18 et 38 D–K), RPhil. 51 (1977) 217–228; Schneider, op. , 60f. In Isocrates (Paneg. 32; Panath. 48; Nic. 8–9) and Aristotle (Protr. fr. 8 Ross), filosofía figures as a (co)inventor of all the técnai. See also Posidonius (fr. ) and objections by Seneca (Ep. 90). Thales was the first to study astronomy, to discuss physical problems, to maintain the immortality of the soul, to inscribe a triangle in a circle, to divide the year into 365 days, and to estimate the sizes of the sun and the moon (D.

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