By OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
International locations this present day face a number of environmental coverage demanding situations, reminiscent of weather swap, air and water pollutants, natural-resource administration, typical failures and environment-related risks. the prices of now not responding to them may be significant, now and again representing an important drag on OECD economies. This record offers introductory views at the bills of state of being inactive and discusses a number of the destiny difficulties more likely to be encountered during this very complicated area.Table of content material :List of AcroymnsExecutive SummaryChapter 1. IntroductionChapter 2. expenses of state of no activity with admire to Air and Water PollutionChapter three. expenses of inactivity with recognize to weather ChangeChapter four. price of state of being inactive wiht admire to Environment-Related commercial injuries and traditional DisastersChapter five. expenses of inactiveness with admire to traditional source ManagementChapter 6. precis and Conclusions
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Extra info for Costs of Inaction on Key Environmental Challenges
1. INTRODUCTION Criteria for selecting the issues examined in this report It is not possible here to provide an exhaustive review of the literature on the costs of inaction with respect to all environmental policies. The particular issues that are addressed in this report (health impacts of pollution, climate change, environment-related accidents, hazards and disasters, and natural resource management) have been selected for discussion for two main reasons: i) taken together, they provide examples of the most common issues which arise when measuring the costs of inaction; and ii) they represent particular environmental problems for which political pressure related to “inaction” seems most likely to occur.
There are therefore two externalities for infectious waterborne diseases – the environmental externality (which relates to levels of exposure) and the public health externality (which relates to disease transmission). This is different from the health impacts of air pollution, which only embody the former. Significant strides have been made in recent years in terms of addressing water pollution. The policy framework for the regulation of industrial point sources is well-developed in most OECD countries, although some pollutants, such as heavy metals and chlorinated solvents, remain a concern.
COSTS OF INACTION ON KEY ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES – ISBN 978-92-64-04577-4 – © OECD 2008 49 2. 8. 7 million per year coastal water in Estoril Coast (Portugal) (1999) Health benefits of quality improvement of Hanley et al. 23 per household per year Health costs associated with urban runoff Dwight et al. 2 million in 1993 Corso et al. 0 billion Improving the drinking water quality and storm water management in the US Garfield et al. 8 billion per year Reducing chemical contamination of drinking water (Korea) Kwak and Russell (1994) USD 106 million/year Improving the quality of recreational waters Georgiou et al.