By Leonard J. Brillson
The authors current the cutting-edge in becoming, processing, and characterizing digital junctions. total, they've got assembled a extensive array of the newest semiconductor interface technological know-how and know-how, starting from complex ohmic, Schottky, and heterojunction contacts to the subtle views of microscopic junctions gleaned from ultrahigh vacuum floor technology strategies. enormous development has been made in those parts over the past few years. This ebook is meant for technologists and reliable country researchers alike.
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Extra info for Contacts to Semiconductors: Fundamentals and Technology (Materials Science and Process Technology)
Squares are from current-voltage measurements on metal/oxide-free LEC-grown GaAs wafers. Circles are from XPS measurements on low-temperature deposited metal/MBE- grown GaAs layers. geV (squares). The recentXPS results (circles) indicate that ideal Schottky behavior (solid fine) may be approached under specific material growth and deposition conditions. (Adapted from Refs. 6 Doping Limitations Besides barrier height, the other material-dependent quantities which affect the energy band diagram for metal-semiconductor interfaces (Fig.
1 21 ) The uppermost GaAs layer is thin enough (100 A) that its consumption and regrowth can be monitored by counting atomic layers using TEM lattice imaging and using the underlying (AI,Ga)As as a marker layer (Fig. 16). , Ge) into the interfacial region of the GaAs can be observed by selective removal of the substrate and SIMS depth profiling from the backside (Fig. 17). This allows for great depth resolution as the single crystalline substrate remains planar during sputtering, the ion beam mixing (knock on) ofthe contact elements do not reduce sensitivity, and the superlattice can be used as a calibration standard for sputter rate.
24 and temperature corrected using Varshni temperature coefficients from Ref. 25. (Adapted from Refs. 21 and 22). 1 Highly Doped Surface Layers for Effective Barrier Height Reduction Given the limited range of metal/n-GaAs barrier heights and the doping limitations, alternative schemes for ohmic contact formation have been developed. Schemes using well-controlled means typically involve modification ofthe thin interfacial layer between the metal and the n-GaAs. If the fixed charge concentration in the surface depletion region is limited to the same value as the free carrier levels, low resistance contacts would not be expected.