By OECD Publishing
Within the absence of robust executive regulations, the IEA initiatives that the global use of oil in shipping will approximately double among 2000 and 2030, resulting in an identical raise in greenhouse gasoline emissions. Bio fuels, resembling ethanol, bio diese
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Additional info for Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective
Nearly all studies include carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). However, many do not look at ozone (O3), which also affects climate directly, but is not emitted as such from fuel cycles. g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). Since 1990, NOx, CO, and NMOCs have been identified as “indirect” GHGs because of their effects on ozone (Delucchi, 1993). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides “global warming potential” (GWP) factors for these compounds.
Feedstock and process technologies Depending on the process, a number of different gases may be released, including methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen. Much research is now focused on maximising the hydrogen yield from such processes, for example in order to provide hydrogen for fuel cell applications (see box). Once the gasification of biomass is complete, the resulting gases can be used in a variety of ways to produce liquid fuels, including: ■ Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels.
Those studies that have been done 58 3. 44 41% 50% 35% 56% For Levy estimates, a and b are high and low process efficiency estimates. n/a: not available. Sources: CONCAWE (2002), except GM et al. (2002). focus on Brazil, where the process of converting sugar cane to ethanol has improved considerably over the past 20 to 30 years and is now relatively efficient. Sugar cane/ethanol plants in Brazil generally make excellent use of biomass as process energy. Fossil fuel inputs are low compared to grain-toethanol processes in the US and Europe.