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By Sinha, D. K.

An try and familiarize the reader with nonlinear platforms, specifically qualitative features in a number of platforms amenable to mathematization.

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The typical portrait is given in Fig. 6: y D A x B C Fig. 6 The critical point O(0,0) is the node, described earlier but it can be said to be a stable node because of its approach towards the point. On the other hand, if λ1 and λ2 are positive, trajectory will be basically the same but directions would be reversed, for both e λ1t and e λ2 t → 0 as t → − ∞. e. λ2 > λ1 > 0 Then e λ1t → ∞ while e λ2 t → 0 as t → ∞ . Equation (7) has then a negative exponent. The trajectories are shown in Fig. 7 The two stable trajectories are those which approach the origin as t → ∞ while the other two trajectories can be shown to be unstable.

5(b) Remarks 1. Having described what a critical point is all about, let us now proceed to analyse the behaviour of linear systems by using their phase-portraits of a given system, even topologically. In fact, the problem is yet to be solved for dx = P( x , y ) dt dy = Q( x , y ) dt where P and Q are polynomials of degree two, One may recall that this is the problem of David Hilbert whose work on identification of unsolvable problems is a classic one, referred to in mathematical antiquity. 2. In what follows, let us seek in different ways what insight can be obtained about linear systems in respect of their qualitative behaviour.

9) Remark We have mentioned the nature of points vis a vis the nature of roots of the equilibrium. By using the reference to Jordan’s ( Fig. g. M AM = J r , we could have mentioned eigen values, and the like for describing the critical roots and we could have had accordingly phase portraits, to which we shall return, with some in-depth treatment on the eigen values. 3 More about qualitative behaviour of linear systems (around a critical point) : Phase-portraits from a different approach We can represent any (two dimensional) linear system by x = A x  x1   a11 where x =   , and A =   x2   a21 (1) a12  .

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