By Juan Pablo Alegre Pérez
This e-book analyzes automated achieve keep watch over (AGC) loop circuits. the most target of this booklet is to illustrate AGC options within the atmosphere of instant receivers, quite often in instant receivers with stringent constraints in settling-time and broad dynamic diversity, similar to WLAN and Bluetooth receivers. in view that feedforward AGCs current nice merits during this context, as a substitute to traditional suggestions AGCs, this publication features a distinct examine of feedforward AGCs layout –at the extent of simple AGC cells, in addition to the procedure point, together with their major features and performance.
- Provides an entire overview of computerized achieve keep an eye on loops, protecting either suggestions and feedforward techniques;
- Describes the whole layout move of the most blocks utilized in AGC circuits (PGAs/VGAs, top detectors and keep an eye on voltage iteration circuits), contemplating low-voltage low-power restrictions;
- Includes actual AGC architectures applied as a normal function electronic feedforward CMOS AGC, an absolutely analogue feedforward AGC and a mixed feedforward/feedback CMOS AGC
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Extra info for Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers
12) 18 2â•… AGC Fundamentals so the time constant depends only on certain internal circuit characteristics: τexp−log = C = constant. 12) is the most popular solution employed to implement AGCs. This has lead many designers to try to implement the VGA with an exponential control voltage [10–13]. This is not difficult if BiCMOS technology is used , but the logarithmic block (in dotted lines) is quite complicated to implement in CMOS technologies, and consequently, in some CMOS systems this block is omitted .
18) Notice that in this case the settling time is a function of the input variable VREF, indicating that the system is fundamentally nonlinear. 13) is independent of any bias condition, since in this case the circuit is perfectly modelled as a linear system in the logarithmic domain. 1â•… AGC Loop Fundamentals 19 Fig. 11) is not the only way to achieve a constant settling-time. 9), the function of the time constant depends on more parameters which can be employed to fix it to a constant value. In fact, a more general solution would be to consider a variable GM2, while C is kept constant due to the difficulty in varying its value in a continuous way.
3a. It is based on a very simple negative feedback gm-boosted differential pair with output resistive loads . 3b). 4) where gmi and roi are respectively the transconductance and the output conductance of transistor Mi. 5) where R denotes one-half of the degeneration resistance and α denotes the M1 gateto-source DC voltage gain, which is somewhat less than unity due to the body 34 3â•… Basic AGC Cells ,% 5/ 9LQ 0 5/ , % 9RXW ,% 9FDV 9FDV 5 0 0 0 0 0 9RXW± 9LQ± 0 0 D 5 N: DL D E :/ D :/ :/ :/ :/ D 0VL 5L 5L 0VL 5L :/ Fig.