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An increased weight will increase the forward speed of the aeroplane as well as the lift and drag. The lift/drag ratio remains the same and is unaffected by weight. Hence the glide angle is unchanged. The only effect is that the aeroplane will descent at a higher speed. As the speed is increased, so also is the rate of descent. Chapter 1 Page 45 © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Aerodynamics FIGURE 1-24 Effect of Weight on L/D Ratio Chapter 1 Page 46 © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Aerodynamics 31.

9. At low temperatures, the mass flow is greater than it would be at a relatively higher temperature at the same altitude. To maintain the same compressor speed, the fuel flow must be increased or else the engine speed will fall. Thus the thrust is increased for a given RPM. 10. For take-off in a low density atmosphere the thrust will fall for a given RPM. Therefore it is necessary to inject water or water methanol into the engine to restore the lost thrust for take-off. Engine RPM 11. Mass flow is directly affected by engine RPM.

Chapter 1 Page 23 © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Aerodynamics The Calculation of Climb Gradient. The gradient of climb is determined by the excess of thrust over drag and can be determined from the forces acting in that climb (see Figure 1-10) by the formula: Lift Climb Gradient = Total drag = ------------------------ kgs L/D ratio Up to 15° climb angle it is safe to assume that lift equals weight and that the climb gradient equals the sine of the angle of climb. Total thrust equals (number of engines x Newtons per engine ÷ g m/s/s/) kgs.

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